Today in History, October 19, 1812:
Napolean Bonaparte’s French army of 500,000 men had invaded Russia and made their way to Moscow, pushing back a weaker Russian army.
However when they got to Moscow, they found it all but deserted, devoid of food and supplies they desperately needed, and partially afire.
After occupying it for a month, Bonaparte realized the expected surrender was not to be and had to retreat himself as his Grande Armee was starving.
On this date in 1812 the retreat began. The Russian army attacked the retreating French, who were also starving and freezing to death in the Russian winter. By the time they made it back to French soil, approximately 400,000 had perished.